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The choice of the name www. Universal Tube subsequently changed its website to www. The company experienced rapid growth. The Daily Telegraph wrote that in , YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in During this time, the company also went through some organizational changes.
In December , YouTube partnered with Vevo. The complex has 51, square metres , square feet of space and can house up to 2, employees. Through this period, YouTube tried several new ways to generate revenue beyond advertisements. In , YouTube launched a pilot program for content providers to offer premium, subscription-based channels within the platform.
YouTube also released YouTube Music , a third app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music content hosted on the YouTube platform. The company also attempted to create products to appeal to specific kinds of viewers. YouTube released a mobile app known as YouTube Kids in , designed to provide an experience optimized for children.
It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate content, and parental control features. The company was attacked on April 3, , when a shooting occurred at YouTube’s headquarters in San Bruno, California, which wounded four and resulted in one death the shooter.
By February , one billion hours of YouTube were watched every day, and hours of video were uploaded every minute. During this period, YouTube entered disputes with other tech companies.
For over a year, in and , there was no YouTube app available for Amazon Fire products. After testing earlier in , YouTube removed public display of dislike counts on videos in November , claiming the reason for the removal was, based on its internal research, that users often used the dislike feature as a form of cyberbullying and brigading. Some theorized the removal of dislikes was influenced by YouTube Rewind , which was heavily panned and became the most-disliked video on the platform.
The process breaks when the platform interferes with it. Then, the platform invariably declines. YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H. At launch in , viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser.
The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at p for smoothening playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds , improving compatibility, as well as for the preservation of limited cellular data plans. The resolution setting can be adjusted automatically based on detected connection speed, as well as be set manually. From to , users could add “annotations” to their videos—such as pop-up text messages and hyperlinks, which allowed for interactive videos.
By all annotations had been removed from videos, breaking some videos which depended on the feature.
YouTube introduced standardized widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including “end screens” a customizable array of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video. All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration.
Users can verify their account, normally through a mobile phone, to gain the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as produce live streams. YouTube also offers manual closed captioning as part of its creator studio. Some intermediate video formats i. In , YouTube added a feature called Premiere which displays a notification to the user mentioning when the video will be available for the first time, like for a live stream but with a prerecorded video.
When the scheduled time arrives, the video is aired as a live broadcast with a two-minute countdown. Optionally, a premiere can be initiated immediately. At the time of the p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a aspect ratio to a widescreen In November , p HD support was added. In June , YouTube began to deploy support for high-frame-rate videos up to 60 frames per second as opposed to 30 before , becoming available for user uploads in October.
YouTube stated that this would enhance “motion-intensive” videos, such as video game footage. YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. Viewers only indirectly influence the video quality. In the mobile apps, users choose between “Auto”, which adjusts resolution based on the internet connection, “High Picture Quality” which will prioritize playing high-quality video, “Data saver” which will sacrifice video quality in favor of low data usage and “Advanced” which lets the user choose a stream resolution.
Since , viewers have had the ability to watch 3D videos. In certain cases, YouTube allows the uploader to upgrade the quality of videos uploaded a long time ago in poor quality. One such partnership with Universal Music Group included remasters of 1, music videos. YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming , including a concert by U2 in , and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners.
In May , creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1, subscribers; in August of the same year the number was reduced to subscribers,  and in December the limit was removed. Live streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10, subscribers,  but as of mid it has been reduced to subscribers. On September 13, , YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media -based feature that allows users to post text, images including GIFs , live videos and others in a separate “Community” tab on their channel.
After the feature has been officially released, the community post feature gets activated automatically for every channel that passes a specific threshold of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This threshold was lowered over time [ when? Channels that the community tab becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions the name before March “One channel layout” redesign finalization: “channel comments” permanently erased, instead of co-existing or migrating.
Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In , Time praised Web 2. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred”.
Juvenile, aggressive, misspelt, sexist , homophobic , swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL , YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through. The Daily Telegraph commented in September , that YouTube was “notorious” for “some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet”, and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, “a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts”.
The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.
In the same article Melvin goes on to say: . Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn’t so bad. Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation.
Isn’t any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity.
They can also allow other users to moderate their comments. In December , it was reported that YouTube would launch a new feature that will warn users who post a comment that “may be offensive to others. YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by, or related to another user’s video can make a “video response”.
The eleven character YouTube video identifier 64 possible characters used in each position , allows for a theoretical maximum of 64 11 or around YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature on August 27, In February , YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.
Since July , it has been possible to select a Creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material. Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website.
Since June , YouTube’s videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube’s content to be transcoded into Apple’s preferred video standard, H. The mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5 in July , avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. In September , YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.
In January , YouTube launched “YouTube for TV”, a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles. During the month of June that same year, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.
On November 15, , Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel. YouTube launched as a downloadable app for the Nintendo Switch in November The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen based on the IP address of the user.
In some cases, the message “This video is not available in your country” may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content. The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach an agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September In January , it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television.
In December , two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site’s terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard , which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.
Since September , subscriber counts are abbreviated. Only three leading digits of channels’ subscriber counts are indicated publicly, compromising the function of third-party real-time indicators such as that of Social Blade. Exact counts remain available to channel operators inside YouTube Studio. On November 11, , after testing out this change in March of the same year, YouTube announced it would start hiding dislike counts on videos, making them invisible to viewers.
The company stated the decision was in response to experiments which confirmed that smaller YouTube creators were more likely to be targeted in dislike brigading and harassment.
Creators will still be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool, according to YouTube. YouTube has faced numerous challenges and criticisms in its attempts to deal with copyright, including the site’s first viral video, Lazy Sunday , which had to be taken down, due to copyright concerns.
YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act.
Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.
In August , a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. In the case of Smith v. In June , YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom , which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.
By , YouTube had “already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology”. In , YouTube described Content ID as “very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File”.
An independent test in uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube and concluded that while the system was “surprisingly resilient” in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible. Before , videos were not monetized until the dispute was resolved.
Since April , videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute. YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site’s features. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube’s “Community Guidelines”.
YouTube contracts companies to hire content moderators, who view content flagged as potentially violating YouTube’s content policies and determines if they should be removed. In September , a class-action suit was filed by a former content moderator who reported developing post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD after an month period on the job. The former content moderator said that she was regularly made to exceed YouTube’s stated limit of four hours per day of viewing graphic content.
The lawsuit alleges that YouTube’s contractors gave little to no training or support for its moderators’ mental health, made prospective employees sign NDAs before showing them any examples of content they would see while reviewing, and censored all mention of trauma from its internal forums.
It also purports that requests for extremely graphic content to be blurred, reduced in size or made monochrome, per recommendations from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children , were rejected by YouTube as not a high priority for the company. To limit the spread of misinformation and fake news via YouTube, it has rolled out a comprehensive policy regarding how it plans to deal with technically manipulated videos.
Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster , in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in YouTube responded by stating:.
We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.
In October , U. Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.
The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with words like “lesbian” or “gay”, which would be predominant in their channels’ content, and because of YouTube’s near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position. YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints.
In , it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who received ad payouts. Alex Jones , known for right-wing conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube. In January , YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy starting in the United States intended to stop recommending videos containing “content that could misinform users in harmful ways.
In a July study based on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser related to climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.
A BBC investigation of YouTube searches in ten different languages found that YouTube’s algorithm promoted health misinformation, including fake cancer cures.
Before , YouTube has taken steps to remove specific videos or channels related to supremacist content that had violated its acceptable use policies but otherwise did not have site-wide policies against hate speech. In the wake of the March Christchurch mosque attacks , YouTube and other sites like Facebook and Twitter that allowed user-submitted content drew criticism for doing little to moderate and control the spread of hate speech, which was considered to be a factor in the rationale for the attacks.
YouTube joined an initiative led by France and New Zealand with other countries and tech companies in May to develop tools to be used to block online hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national level, to be levied against technology firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate.
YouTube further stated it would “remove content denying that well-documented violent events, like the Holocaust or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place. Spencer , asserting these channels violated their policies on hate speech.
Following the dissemination via YouTube of misinformation related to the COVID pandemic that 5G communications technology was responsible for the spread of coronavirus disease which led to multiple 5G towers in the United Kingdom being attacked by arsonists, YouTube removed all such videos linking 5G and the coronavirus in this manner.
YouTube extended this policy in September to cover videos disseminating misinformation related to any vaccine, including those long approved against measles or Hepatitis B, that had received approval from local health authorities or the World Health Organization. Kennedy Jr. Google and YouTube implemented policies in October to deny monetization or revenue to advertisers or content creators that promoted climate change denial , which “includes content referring to climate change as a hoax or a scam, claims denying that long-term trends show the global climate is warming, and claims denying that greenhouse gas emissions or human activity contribute to climate change.
In July YouTube announced policies to combat misinformation surrounding abortion , such as videos with instructions to perform abortion methods that are considered unsafe and videos that contain misinformation about the safety of abortion. Leading into , there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family’s activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material.
During Q2 , the owners of popular channel FamilyOFive , which featured themselves playing “pranks” on their children, were accused of child abuse. Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody. Her videos would later be deleted. Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views.
The term ” Elsagate ” was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family-friendly characters. As part of a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels that showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults.
Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks , a channel with over 8. Even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube’s system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children’s content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children’s content.
One channel that had been of concern was ” Cocomelon ” which provided numerous mass-produced animated videos aimed at children. Ownership of Cocomelon was unclear outside of its ties to “Treasure Studio”, itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel’s purpose,    but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners in February regarding “Cocomelon”, who stated their goal for the channel was to simply entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors.
In January , YouTube officially banned videos containing “challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm” such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge and videos featuring pranks that “make victims believe they’re in physical danger” or cause emotional distress in children.
Also in November , it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children—often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics—were attracting comments from pedophiles   with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian.
As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about “Elsagate”, several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube. In February , YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a “wormhole” that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user’s recommended content feature only these types of videos.
Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions or otherwise making indecent remarks.
In some cases, other users had re-uploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network.
A spokesperson explained that “any content—including comments—that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube.
There’s more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly. Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments.
The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem. These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics. YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators.
YouTube apologized for the errors and reinstated the affected videos. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity. In June , The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children.
YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from to In , all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley ‘s music video ” Never Gonna Give You Up “, a prank known as ” rickrolling “.
The next year, the site celebrated its “th anniversary” with a range of sepia-toned silent, early s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat. In , YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim in an uploaded video that the video-sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would shut down for ten years before being re-launched in , featuring only the winning video.
The video starred several YouTube celebrities , including Antoine Dodson. A video of two presenters announcing the nominated videos streamed live for 12 hours. In , YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as “Clocking”, “Kissing Dad”, and “Glub Glub Water Dance”. Only users with over subscribers have access to this.
Community posts can include images, GIFs, text and video. YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is distinct from the company’s main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users.
It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth , and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution. YouTube announced the project in September at an event in India. The app was developed in response to parental and government scrutiny on the content available to children. The app provides a version of the service-oriented towards children, with curated selections of content, parental control features, and filtering of videos deemed inappropriate viewing for children aged under 13, 8 or 5 depending on the age grouping chosen.
On May 27, , it became available on Apple TV. As of September , the app is available in 69 countries, including Hong Kong and Macau, and one province. YouTube Movies is a service by YouTube that shows movies via its website. Around — movies are free to view, with ads. Some new movies get added and some get removed, unannounced at a new month. In early , Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube’s new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music.
It offers advertising-free streaming, access to original programming , and background and offline video playback on mobile devices. In September , YouTube announced that it would be launching a beta version of a new platform of second videos, similar to TikTok , called YouTube Shorts. Like TikTok, it gives users access to built-in creative tools, including the possibility of adding licensed music to their videos.
YouTube later renamed the feature “YouTube Stories”. Experimental features of YouTube can be accessed in an area of the site named TestTube. The feature was removed later. Later the same year, YouTube Feather was introduced as a lightweight alternative website for countries with limited internet speeds. Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Premium original content.
Both private individuals  and large production corporations  have used YouTube to grow audiences. Indie creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.
Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been “fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution,” TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that “what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication.
Howard quoted an activist’s succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using “Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the ” Kony ” video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video “will do more to lead to Kony’s demise than all other action combined. Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House ‘s official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in  and in a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson ‘s YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act Obamacare -compliant health insurance.
President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare  but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the “YouTube Generation. Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.
Instead, we propose the ‘Supply and Demand’ framework for analyzing politics on YouTube. The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers  and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra  selected their membership based on individual video performances.
Prior to , Google did not provide detailed figures for YouTube’s running costs, and YouTube’s revenues in were noted as ” not material ” in a regulatory filing. Google first published exact revenue numbers for YouTube in February as part of Alphabet’s financial report.
The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox , and Disney. In March , the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content.
The government demanded assurances that its advertising would “be delivered safely and appropriately”. The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.
Google stated that it had “begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear”. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video. On April 6, , YouTube announced that to “ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules”, it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.
There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program. Usually no more than half of the eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers. YouTube policies restrict certain forms of content from being included in videos being monetized with advertising, including videos containing violence, strong language, sexual content, “controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown” unless the content is “usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator’s intent is to inform or entertain” ,  and videos whose user comments contain “inappropriate” content.
In , YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos. YouTube’s policies on ” advertiser-friendly content ” restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language,  sexual content, and “controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown”, unless the content is “usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator’s intent is to inform or entertain”.
DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was “censorship by a different name”. A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had “improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators”.
As of November in the United States and June worldwide,  YouTube reserves the right to monetize any video on the platform, even if their uploader is not a member of the YouTube Partner Program. This will occur on channels whose content is deemed “advertiser-friendly”, and all revenue will go directly to Google without any share given to the uploader.
YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue. Operations for the program ceased on March 20, YouTube has been censored, filtered, or banned for a variety of reasons, including: .
Access to specific videos is sometimes prevented due to copyright and intellectual property protection laws e. In some countries, YouTube is blocked for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries.
In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Video-sharing platform owned by Google. For the company’s channel on YouTube, see YouTube channel. Internet Video hosting service. Main article: History of YouTube. Main article: YouTube copyright issues. Main article: Content ID system.
See also: Elsagate. Main article: YouTube Kids. Main article: YouTube Music. Main article: YouTube Premium. Main article: YouTube Shorts. Main article: YouTube TV. Main article: Social impact of YouTube. Main article: Censorship of YouTube. Has local YouTube version. Currently blocked. Previously blocked. Listen to this article 29 minutes.
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 26 March , and does not reflect subsequent edits. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 11, January The Register. Retrieved September 16, Official Google Code Blog. Retrieved March 25, High Scalability.
Retrieved October 13, October 23, A billion hours”. Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved April 19, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved June 10, Visual Capitalist. Retrieved December 6, BBC News. February 1, Retrieved May 26, Retrieved January 31, When Did YouTube Start”.
July 4, Retrieved February 10, The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, The Sydney Morning Herald. October 11, Retrieved March 18, There’s a third YouTube co-founder”.
USA Today. Retrieved June 19, Archived from the original on December 21, — via www. The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, The Washington Post. Retrieved April 1, The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, April 23, Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved August 3, Wayback Machine. November 25, Archived from the original on November 25, Retrieved January 1, November 2, I’d like to learn more about financing options I have a vehicle to trade in.
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Get news and information on Adobe’s global events. From MAX to Summit global events, come engage with experts and visionaries through live, on demand and webinar content. Adobe Events. Summit ; Register for free. Adobe Summit all year long. Learn, be inspired, and make the digital economy personal with more than sessions on demand. YouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. The trio were early employees of PayPal, which left them enriched after the company was bought by eBay. Hurley had studied design at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.. According to a . Dec 14, · Formerly Adobe Spark for Education, this program offers Creative Cloud Express (the full Premium version, custom tuned for the classroom) completely free for K schools and districts. Learn more and apply here, and get your school up and running to create powerful graphics, videos, and presentations quickly with the Express tools.
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Something went wrong. View cart for details. Le livre numérique (en anglais: ebook ou e-book), aussi connu sous les noms de livre électronique et de livrel, est un livre édité et diffusé en version numérique, disponible sous la forme de fichiers, qui peuvent être téléchargés et stockés pour être lus sur un écran ,  (ordinateur personnel, téléphone portable, liseuse, tablette tactile), sur une plage braille, un. daytona speeder x. daytona speeder에서 새롭게 탄생한 미들 킥 타입의 「daytona x」가 라인업에 합류.차원 높은 스피드감을 계승하여, 매끄럽고 쉬운 스윙감을 추구한 프리미엄 모델을 패션잡지 등,수많은 잡지사에서 편집장을 맡아온 잭 타카하시氏, .
Adobe Photoshop Elements / Premiere Elements by Adobe Creative Team, . | eBay.Adobe® Premiere Pro® CS6 Classroom in a Book® [Book]
Creating Titles Getting started An overview of the Titler window Video typography essentials Creating titles Stylizing text Working with shapes and logos Making text roll and crawl Review questions Review answers Adding Transitions Getting started What are transitions? Classroom in a Book offers what no other book or training program does—an official training series from Adobe Systems Incorporated, developed with the support of Adobe product experts. Ratings and reviews Learn more. The 19 project-based lessons in this book show readers step-by-step the key techniques for working in Premiere Pro CS6. Condition: Any condition Any condition. Start your free trial.